Part 2: Babies born in weeks 22-27

Verified by

Sara Dellner

Midwife

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    Part 2: Babies born in weeks 22-27

    Verified by

    Sara Dellner

    Midwife

    I denna artikelserie om fem delar kommer du att kunna läsa om för tidigt födda barn och neonatalavdelningen.

    Det extremt för tidigt födda barnets hjärna är mycket omogen och så även lungorna. De flesta nervceller har redan bildats men hjärnans struktur behöver fortfarande utvecklas. Merparten av barnets energi går åt till hjärnans utveckling. Hörseln är redan utvecklad och det extremt för tidigt födda barnet är känsligt mot höga ljud. Ögonlocken är tunna och ger minimalt med skydd för ögonen. Doftsinnet är utvecklat och barnet kan känna smaker. Barnet pendlar ofta mellan ytlig sömn och lättare vakenhet, varför det kan vara svårt att se om barnet sover eller är vaket. Huden är rödaktig, tunn och känslig med ytliga nervtrådar som gör huden ömtålig. Barnet har ett omoget rörelsemönster och rör sig ofta med ryckiga rörelser och sträckningar.

    I början behöver det extremt för tidigt födda barnet högspecialiserad intensivvård. Barnet behöver hjälp med att hålla värmen av en varm och fuktig kuvös. Miljön kring barnet eftersträvar att vara så lik den i livmodern, dvs lugn, tyst och mörk. Barnet ligger i ett litet bäddnäste som ger den lilla kroppen stöd. Ofta behöver barn som föds så här tidigt andningshjälp i form av respirator, på grund av att barnet fortfarande har ett oregelbundet andningsmönster. De flesta barnen behöver även ljusbehandling till och från på grund av att levern fortfarande är omogen. Barnet kan oftast tidigt få mycket liten mängd mat via magen med hjälp av en sondslang, men behöver även näring via dropp. Det extremt för tidigt födda barnet är mycket infektionskänsligt.

    Hjärnans utveckling fortsätter och börjar omkring vecka 25-27 att väckas och få mer struktur. Detta bidrar till att hjärnan kommer att fungera mer effektivt och kraftfullt, något som är viktigt för inlärning och intelligens. Barnet börjar nu röra på sig som reaktion på när någon pratar. Ögonen är fortfarande känsliga och kan under rätta förhållanden klara av att öppna sig under korta stunder.

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