The placenta - what is it?

Verified by

Sara Dellner

Midwife

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    The placenta - what is it?

    Verified by

    Sara Dellner

    Midwife

    Moderkakan är ett tillfälligt organ som ger ditt foster näring under graviditeten. Utvecklingen av detta organ börjar redan några dagar efter befruktningen.

    Moderkaka kallas på medicinskt språk för placenta. Det är ett unikt organ på grund av att den innehåller genetiskt ursprung från två individer – fostret och den gravida. Moderkakans övergripande uppgift är att *utbyta cirkulation mellan foster och den gravida. Det innebär att moderkakan ser till att fostret kan utbyta syre och koldioxid (såsom vi andas via lungorna), men även näringsämnen, hormoner och elektrolyter samt avlägsna slaggprodukter. Moderkakan kallas även för livets träd och består av just en trädliknande struktur.

    Hur bildas moderkakan?

    Tidigt i graviditeten bäddar embryot in sig i livmoderväggen och delar på sig. Den ena delen kommer att bilda fostret medan den andra delen börjar att bilda moderkakan. Moderkakan kommer att sitta där embryot väljer att bädda in sig. Det kan vara högt i livmodern (fundus), i fram- eller bakvägg eller i nedre delen av livmodern. Allt eftersom graviditeten fortskrider och livmodern växer, brukar moderkakan dra sig uppåt. Om du har en moderkaka som ligger lågt placerad vid ditt rutinultraljud (ca 5%), betyder det därför inte att den kommer ha samma position närmare förlossningen (ca 0.5%).

    I moderkakan finns små bassänger av den gravidas blod som sköljer över de blodkärl som leder till fostret. Däremellan finns filter som ser till att fostret och den gravidas blod aldrig blandas. Detta skyddar fostret från många bakterier men även en del virus. I slutet av graviditeten släpper detta filter igenom större molekyler som till exempel antikroppar, för att hjälpa till att bygga upp fostrets immunförsvar. Blodet kan dock komma att blandas vid exempelvis trauma, vändning av foster och invasiv fosterdiagnostik, och kan vara av betydelse om den gravida har negativ blodgrupp och fostret positiv (mer om det kan du läsa i artikeln om RhD-immunisering).

    Här kan du läsa om livmodern och fostervatten!

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