Why do you get gestational diabetes?

Verified by

Sara Dellner

Midwife

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    Why do you get gestational diabetes?

    Verified by

    Sara Dellner

    Midwife

    Kroppen behöver kunna ta upp allt mer socker från blodet när du är gravid. Blodsockervärdet kan bli för högt om insulinet inte räcker till. Då kan du få diagnosen graviditetsdiabetes. I den här artikeln går vi igenom vad det innebär.

    Alla gravida klarar inte av att möta det ökade kravet på insulinproduktion som en graviditet medför, och utvecklar då en typ av diabetes. Insulin är ett hormon som bildas i bukspottskörteln och hjälper till att bryta ner blodsockerhalten i blodet (glukos). Under graviditeten (framförallt den senare delen) uppstår en minskad känslighet för insulin, vilket framför allt beror på hormoner som utsöndras från moderkakan. Det innebär att bukspottskörteln måste producera mer insulin för att kompensera. Om inte bukspottskörteln klarar av att producera tillräckligt utvecklar den gravida alltså denna typ av diabetes.

    Vilka löper en större risk att få graviditetsdiabetes?

    De som har en eller flera av följande:

    • Övervikt eller fetma
    • Stigande ålder
    • Ärftlighet för diabetes
    • Tidigare graviditeter med GDM
    • Om en tidigare har fött ett för stort barn

    Vilka risker för graviditetsdiabetes med sig?

    Om den gravida har förhöjd blodsockernivå i blodet leder det i sin tur även till förhöjda blodsockernivåer hos fostret (eftersom högt blodsocker hos den gravida passerar via moderkakan). Fostret börjar då producera mer insulin för att ta hand om den ökade blodsockernivån. Insulin är ett tillväxthormon för fostret och risken är att fostret ökar kraftigt i vikt och blir för stort. Detta kan i sin tur leda till komplikationer vid förlossningen.

    Hur upptäcker man diabetes under graviditeten? Vilka symtom har graviditetsdiabetes?

    Vissa regioner screenar alla gravida för graviditetsdiabetes genom en så kallad glukosbelastning. I andra regioner erbjuds glukosbelastning om du har riskfaktorer eller får ett slumpmässigt för högt blodsocker när barnmorskan provtur dig under graviditeten. I sällsynta fall konstateras diabetes direkt vid provtagning i fingret, om det skulle vara alldeles för högt. I de allra flesta fall ställs diagnosen GDM efter att den gravida fått göra en glukosbelastning. Under en glukosbelastning får den gravida först fasta från kvällen innan, för att sedan ta ett blodsockerprov innan intag av sockerlösningen, men även 60 min och 120 min efteråt. Resultatet diagnostiserar sedan en eventuell graviditetsdiabetes.

    Vilken kost rekommenderas vid graviditetsdiabetes?

    Graviditetsdiabetes behandlas via kost- och motion, tabletter och/eller insulin, beroende på resultatet av glukosbelastningen men även hur blodsockernivåerna ser ut längre fram i graviditeten. Om diagnosen GDM ställs kommer den gravida att frekvent behöva provta sitt blodsocker. Läkaren kan vägleda hur man ska tänka kring kosten och motion.

    Risken för att få diabetes under graviditeten kan alltså minska avsevärt med bra kostvanor och att hålla sig fysiskt aktiv. Om man haft GDM löper man en större risk att utveckla diabetes typ-II senare i livet. Uppföljning sker normalt via vårdcentralen när graviditeten är slut.

    Här kan du läsa om förebyggande träning under graviditet.

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